Le unghie rigate

Per trattare efficacemente il problema delle unghie rigate occorre individuarne prima la causa.
I rimedi infatti sono legati all’origine del disturbo.

I problemi delle unghie

Le unghie com’è noto, riflettono spesso le condizioni di benessere o di disagio di tutto il nostro organismo. Non è raro infatti che la presenza nelle unghie di segni, di piccoli difetti e di imperfezioni sia correlata ad un malessere fisico o ad uno stile di vita non del tutto salutare.

Le unghie rigate con più o meno evidenti striature orizzontali o verticali sono un fenomeno molto diffuso.

Le mani sono una parte del nostro corpo su cui cade normalmente l’attenzione, e il non riuscire ad avere delle unghie perfette può essere anche un motivo di disagio psicologico. Questo fenomeno può dipendere da svariati motivi, da disturbi o patologie, semplici o complesse.

Per fortuna, molto spesso si tratta di un problema di poco conto che è possibile risolvere in modo relativamente semplice.

Per tali ragioni, nei casi di striature e di difetti, è consigliabile non coprire le unghie con lo smalto, ma di rivolgersi al proprio medico curante che, se del caso, consiglierà un approfondimento da parte di un dermatologo esperto.

Le unghie

Le unghie sono composte di cheratina, una proteina che si trova in diverse parti del corpo umano, soprattutto nei capelli e nella pelle. E’ una sostanza elastica e flessibile, che conferisce alle unghie la loro caratteristica struttura resistente e piuttosto dura, non facile a spezzarsi.

Le unghie di un soggetto normale si allungano a causa della crescita cellulare di almeno un centimetro al mese, e in mancanza di traumi non si spezzano. Se hanno dei segni anomali come striature, macchie o avvallamenti, potrebbe trattarsi di un problema a livello locale, oppure di un disagio di carattere organico.

La presenza di unghie rigate è solitamente legata,

  • ai normali processi di invecchiamento,
  • a dei traumi ed a movimenti non corretti,
  • ma anche a delle patologie legate al sistema immunitario,
  • a dei problemi di metabolismo e ad un’alimentazione non equilibrata.

Le striature delle unghie

La rigatura delle unghie può essere lieve, o può essere più consistente e più visibile. Talvolta è transitoria, altre volte invece dura per molto tempo.

Le righe – o i solchi – presenti sulla superficie delle unghie, possono avere un orientamento orizzontale oppure verticale.

orizzontali

Le striature orizzontali che non dipendono da un trauma, sono dovute spesso a mancanze di vitamine o ad una terapia antibiotica in corso.

verticali

Le striature verticali dipendono in genere,

  • da una mancanza di ferro,
  • dall’uso di smalti e di prodotti aggressivi,
  • ma spesso sono semplicemente dovute al naturale invecchiamento dei nostri tessuti.

ondulate con avvallamenti

Le righe ondulate con avvallamenti, che sono di solito anche spesse, potrebbero dipendere da un’infezione locale o da un trauma.

Per affrontare il problema delle unghie rigate e per risolverlo al meglio la soluzione è, come abbiamo detto, quella di rivolgersi a un medico o ad uno specialista dermatologo, che provvederà ad effettuare un’adeguata anamnesi e, se necessario, alcuni specifici accertamenti.

In ogni caso, è bene tener conto,

  • che, anche una vita troppo stressante si ripercuote sulla salute delle unghie,
  • che quando si usano detersivi e prodotti chimici,  è fondamentale l’uso di guanti protettivi.

Perché compaiono rigature sulle unghie

Le striature sulle unghie possono avere origini diverse. Talvolta – ad esempio in presenza di funghi e lesioni epidermiche – il problema è limitato al tessuto delle unghie stesse. In altri casi, le unghie rigate dipendono da disturbi interni all’organismo, i cui effetti sono visibili anche a livello cutaneo.

In particolare, i fattori che possono provocare delle alterazioni visibili nel tessuto ungueale sono:

  • le infezioni e i traumi;
  • la presenza di funghi, di eczemi, di alopecia, di psoriasi e di altre patologie epidermiche;
  • un’alimentazione non equilibrata e carente di ferro e di vitamine;
  • le patologie del metabolismo,
  • le disfunzioni della tiroide,
  • i problemi digestivi,
  • le anemie,
  • forme allergiche;
  • alcuni particolari trattamenti farmacologici.

Potrebbero provocare le caratteristiche e antiestetiche righe, anche le abitudini di vita non corrette come,

  • l’uso di solventi troppo aggressivi,
  • il contatto con detersivi e prodotti detergenti,
  • il fumo,
  • l’abitudine di mangiarsi le unghie,
  • persino una manicure troppo intensiva,
  • e l’uso di smalti semipermanenti,

La presenza di unghie sottili striate verticalmente è tipica anche degli anziani, in quanto appartiene al normale processo di invecchiamento dei tessuti:

Mentre una striatura orizzontale dipende spesso da delle carenze vitaminiche e di calcio, e talvolta si manifesta durante l’assunzione di antibiotici e altri farmaci.

Le infezioni da funghi

Non è raro che le alterazioni del tessuto ungueale, comprese le striature siano causate da un’infezione fungina. In questo caso, l’unghia non appare solo striata ma appare anche macchiata, rugosa e spesso deformata fino al punto di distaccarsi.

I funghi che invadono il tessuto delle unghie sono dovuti a cause diverse, tra cui,

  • le scarse difese immunitarie,
  • i traumi,
  • alcune patologie croniche come il diabete.

Le unghie fragili e spezzate

Le unghie fragili si manifestano con scheggiature, con piccoli tagli, con degli sfaldamenti e un bordo dentellato e irregolare. Sono più frequenti nei soggetti anziani, e di sesso femminile. Possono essere causate dalla presenza,

  • di funghi ed infezioni,
  • dalla psoriasi e dall’alopecia,
  • da traumi ripetuti,
  • dal contatto con sostanze corrosive,
  • e da un deperimento fisico generale, magari dovuto ad un’alimentazione non corretta o a una dieta molto drastica.

Anche l’invecchiamento, come si è detto contribuisce alla fragilità delle unghie, anche se talvolta le cause sono da ricercarsi in determinate situazioni ambientali:

  • la temperatura,
  • l’umidità e,
  • soprattutto, l’inquinamento.

In ogni caso, le unghie rigate e sottili tendono a sfaldarsi ed a scheggiarsi facilmente; perdono l’elasticità naturale ed arrivano spesso a spezzarsi continuamente.

Le diagnosi e le relative terapie

In caso di unghie rigate, o con altri difetti e problemi visibili, la scelta migliore è quella di rivolgersi al proprio medico di fiducia, il quale se necessario prescriverà una visita dermatologica, che consistente in un esame accurato delle unghie tramite un videomicroscopio.

Anche il dermatologo potrebbe prescrivere degli ulteriori esami di approfondimento, compreso un esame microbiologico in caso di una probabile infezione.

I rimedi e le terapie variano in relazione alla causa che ha provocato la striatura delle unghie.

Se come spesso accade, il problema riguarda un’alimentazione non equilibrata  sarà necessario ricorrere ad una dieta specifica, e talvolta a degli integratori di vitamine e di sali minerali. In caso di infezioni fungine e di micosi, verranno prescritte delle cure antibiotiche e antimicotiche, oltre che a dei trattamenti locali.

Per la psoriasi e le altre patologie dermatologiche sono necessarie delle terapie specifiche.

Una regola sempre valida è quella di prestare la massima attenzione alla manicure, utilizzando strumenti e prodotti professionali, oppure rivolgendosi ad un centro specializzato, ed evitando di fare dei trattamenti troppo invasivi.

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